It was gutted by the Great Fire, which left only the walls and tower standing. The parish set about rebuilding it in 1667-71, without reference to Wren, based on the burnt out shell.
There have been frequent alterations over the years, and much of the remaining 17th century interior disappeared in drastic reordering between 1873 and 1880.
It is the largest parish church in the City, a wide, roomy space with a coffered ceiling.
Known as the National Musicians Church, it has a chapel dedicated to St Cecilia containing Sir Henry Wood's ashes and stained glass windows commemorating the singer Dame Nellie Melba and the composer Walter Carroll.
The church is also home to the Loos Cross, brought from the World War I battlefield where one hundred officers and men from the City of London Rifles lost their lives in 1915.