Buckden church was recorded in 1086, in the Domesday Book, within the jurisdiction of the Bishops of Lincoln, whose palace stands a few metres to the north; and from Saxon until Georgian times it was well endowed by them.
No traces of the Saxon church survive, although there are a few remnants from late Norman times. The structure of the church today is almost unchanged from when it was rebuilt between 1435 and 1440 by Bishops Gray and Alnwick of Lincoln; only the pews would be unfamiliar to them.
The porch was added around 1485 and the vestry and organ were replaced in the 1880s. The last major work, involving the stripping of the interior and exterior plaster and the installation of new pews, was completed in 1909.